Then at another time I draw another face.
Reasons in aesthetics are basically descriptions that establish comparisons. Where there is an internal relation there is meaning expressed through a form of experience: thus, there is an aesthetic quality of experience. This topic deserves further examination with reference to the topics of understanding and form.
Full text issues
Does this mean that for Wittgenstein taste is a paradigm of philosophy? I do not believe so; in fact, I believe the opposite: the taste expressed in a specific aesthetic judgment is an exemplary case of the more general aesthetic understanding of meaning. For Wittgenstein aesthetics is not an object but a conceptual theme, one that allows us to analyze his concept of concept and his concept of understanding.
But which concept of form for Wittgenstein? The form that gives sense to experience is immanent in experience itself and possesses a life: an aesthetic, that is, manifestative one. The fact Wittgenstein often turns to the theme of rhythm — that is, of configured time — confirms his idea that form should be understood in its aesthetic life , that is, for how it manifests itself: not the fixed, essential form but one that grasps the relationships in the configuration of the parts .
I shall limit myself here to observing that comparing confirms the aesthetic nature of the understanding of form.
We know that comparing is not merely seeing primary seeing, observing but rather seeing as , seeing according to a criterion or a schematized rule. As Wittgenstein states, seeing as is not seeing properties in objects but seeing what connects them sensibly. I see a face, and then another that resembles the first: it is then that I succeed in seeing the physiognomy, the form, the Aspekt eidos of the first. We speak of understanding a sentence in the sense in which it can be replaced by another which says the same; but also in the sense in which it cannot be replaced by any other any more than one musical theme can be replaced by another.
What does it consist in: following a musical phrase with understanding? Contemplating a face with sensitivity for its expression? Wittgenstein : 51e. In this last sentence, read in context, Wittgenstein says that the expression does not follow on a thought but is the meaning brought to completion in the form of the linguistic material. We cannot say that the expression of meaning is complete or incomplete; we cannot speak of implication, because there is no interior language that copies the articulations of being.
Wittgenstein would probably have agreed with this passage from Merleau-Ponty:.
You might say that the English language does not use the relative pronoun; but the truth is that, instead of being expressed by a single word, it enters into the language as a void between words. But let us neither say that this is implication: the notion of implication ingenuously expresses our conviction that a language generally our mother tongue has succeeded in capturing in its forms the things themselves […] if the French language seems to imitate things, this is not because it does it, but because it gives us the illusion of doing it through the internal relations between one sign and the next.
However, the man I love does it equally well. The absence of a sign can be a sign itself, and expression does not consist in making an element of discourse adhere to each element of meaning but in an operation of language which suddenly moves off toward its meaning Merleau-Ponty : For Wittgenstein as well, language moves off in a flashing toward expression, or toward understanding; and it is in this flashing aufleuchten that the aesthetic nature of understanding resides.
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Beversluis, , Hackett, Indianapolis. Oder: das Thema Naturgeschichte des Menschen, nicht Psychologie. Further, the preceding are not merely descriptive points. If Moore were to pronounce the opposite of those propositions which he declares certain, we should not just not share his opinion: we should regard him as demented.
In order to make a mistake, a man must already judge in conformity with mankind. Even so, they implicitly govern the relevant forms of activity, cognitive and otherwise. There is nothing more certain that could serve as reason either for or against them. But this is distinct from a general identification of meaning and use; much less is it an identification of meaning with practical effects.
For I am not saying that a proposition is true if it is useful. No, experience is not the ground for our game of judging. Nor is its outstanding success. This game proves its worth. That may be the cause of its being played, but it is not the ground. Goodman ; Moyal-Sharrock Yet — and again, as with Reid — there does seem to be a heavy strain of the broad form of pragmatism discussed earlier cf.
Moyal-Sharrock Goodman 94; e. Further, it is not particular actions, but rather the more general practices in which they are embedded — our taking certain sorts of things but not others to constitute evidence, grounds for doubt, legitimate forms of inquiry, and so on e. If I have exhausted the justifications I have reached bedrock, and my spade is turned.
What has to be accepted, the given, is — so one could say — forms of life. Wittgenstein The essence of the language game is a practical method a way of acting — not speculation, not chatter. For instance,. There cannot be any doubt about it for me as a reasonable person. The reasonable man does not have certain doubts. Our not doubting [Moore-style propositions] is simply our manner of judging, and therefore of acting. Ferreira I am not more certain of the meaning of my words than I am of certain judgments […].
From a child on up I learnt to judge like this. This is judging. This is how I learned to judge; this I got to know as judgment. Relatedly, and setting aside the worry of whether they really are believed see above , they appear to be the sort of thing a commitment to which really could be common. The latter is a feature Reid stresses: the commonness of common sense itself, and of the first principles for which it vouches, is what explains our being able to communicate, argue, and transact business with one another e. Here, while doing my best to remain neutral as to the specific character of their respective positions, I have suggested that these similarities include a shared commitment to an idea that, according to several commentators, is central to pragmatism, broadly understood — the idea, namely, that practice is somehow primary.
Further, I have argued that while the commitment to common sense is, as one might expect, much more explicit in Reid, Wittgenstein too gives fundamental place to the ideas of the reasonable person and of good judgment, as manifested in both thought and action. Zeglen eds.
Ferreira M. Goodman Russell B. Hensley Judy M. Magnus P. Meyers Robert G. Peirce Society , 3 1 , Moore G. Muirhead ed. Reprinted in Moore , Zalta ed. Peirce C.