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Aphid performance on virus-infected wild-type and pmr mutant plants. See panel B for statistics on the aphid-infested plants. B Detailed examination of camalexin accumulation in aphid-infested leaves [also shown in panel A ] revealed that in plants with disrupted miRNA utilization 35S:2b -expressing lines 2.

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Interestingly, the double transgenic plants expressing the 2b and 1a proteins had levels of camalexin similar to NT plants. Aphid infestation resulted in significantly increased levels of camalexin relative to the mock-treatment in the 35S:2b -expressing line 2. Different letters are assigned to significantly different groups. Symptoms induced by CMV reassortants in wild-type Arabidopsis plants.

Virus Insect Plant Interactions

Plants were photographed at 14 days post-inoculation. Aphid performance on virus-infected wild-type plants and dcl mutant plants.

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A Ingestion from the phloem E2 waveform, colored black was significantly increased for aphids feeding on Fny2b -transgenic plants in the second half of recordings. B Ingestion from the phloem E2 waveform, colored black was significantly increased for aphids feeding on ago transgenic plants across the whole recording.

Glucosinolate accumulation in wild-type plants and ago mutants. Abbreviations: 4MI3M, 4-methoxy-indol3yl-methylglucosinolate, and I3M, indolyl-methylglucosinolate. Appearance of plants from independent transformed lines expressing transgenes encoding the CMV proteins 1a, 2a, 2b, movement protein MP , and coat protein CP under the control of the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Plants were five weeks old when photographed.

Virus-Insect Interactions at Iowa State University | Department of Entomology

Scale bar represents 1 cm. CMV proteins transgenically expressed in Arabidopsis are biologically active. Three weeks post-inoculation, CMV coat protein CP was detected by DAS-ELISA in the non-inoculated leaves indicating that virus replication had occurred due to complementation of efficient replication and spread by the transgenically-expressed viral protein.

A truncated form of the Fny2a protein had the capacity to induce anti-aphid resistance. Data presented represents the mean accumulation of each glucosinolate extracted from tissue from at least three plants per treatment grouped and repeated independently three times. Primers used in generation of transgenic plants expressing proteins derived from Fny-CMV. We thank Adrienne Pate for expert technical support. We also thank Jane Glazebrook for the kind gift of camalexin. Browse Subject Areas?

Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract Background Virus-induced deterrence to aphid feeding is believed to promote plant virus transmission by encouraging migration of virus-bearing insects away from infected plants. Introduction Viruses induce extensive biochemical changes in plants [ 1 ].

Download: PPT. Figure 1. Aphid behavior and performance on virus-infected wild-type Arabidopsis plants. Figure 2. Fny-CMV triggered defense-related plant gene expression and changes in secondary metabolism Microarray analysis indicated that altered host gene expression might underpin Fny-CMV-induced resistance to M. Figure 3.

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Figure 4. Figure 5. Fny-CMV infection of Arabidopsis induces resistance to aphids by inducing accumulation of 4-methoxy-indol3yl-methylglucosinolate 4MI3M. Figure 6. Figure 7. Disruption of AGO1 function by Fny2b induced antibiosis but not feeding deterrence to aphids. Figure 8. The Fny2a protein induces anti-aphid resistance in transgenic plants. Figure 9. Discussion The induction of feeding deterrence against M.

Figure Induction of aphid feeding deterrence and avoidance of aphid antibiosis induction during CMV infection. Hypothesis: Differential effects of virus infection on aphid plant interactions may favor either transmission or persistence. Construction of reassortant viruses CMV reassortants were constituted according to the methods of Zhang et al. Secondary metabolite extraction and analysis For analysis of glucosinolates approximately 20 mg freeze-dried tissue was extracted under methanol according to Rossiter et al.

Supporting Information. Figure S1. Figure S2. Figure S3.

Figure S4. Figure S5. Figure S6. Figure S7. Figure S8. Figure S9. Figure S Spreadsheet S1. Spreadsheet S2. Spreadsheet S3. Table S1. Table S2. References 1. In: G. LoebensteinJP Carr. Natural resistance mechanisms of plants to viruses. Berlin: Springer.

Mol Plant Pathol 5: PubMed: View Article Google Scholar 3. Adv Virus Res View Article Google Scholar 4. Functional Ecol View Article Google Scholar 5. Curr Opin Microbiol View Article Google Scholar 6. Powell G Intracellular salivation is the aphid activity associated with inoculation of non-persistently transmitted viruses.

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Virus-Insect-Plant Interactions

Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata Plant J Mol Plant Microbe Interact Plant Physiol Nature Plant Sig Behav 2: PLOS Genet 6: e Kim JH, Jander G Myzus persicae green peach aphid feeding on Arabidopsis induces the formation of a deterrent indole glucosinolate. Plant Cell Science J Biosci New Phytol Glazebrook J, Ausubel FM Isolation of phytoalexin-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana and characterization of their interactions with bacterial pathogens.

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