Skip to the content. Intranet Extranet Login. Agricultural practices, coastal tourism, port and harbour developments, damming of rivers, urban development and construction, mining, fisheries, aquaculture, and manufacturing, among others, are all sources of marine pollution threatening coastal and marine habitats.
Excessive nutrients from sewage outfalls and agricultural runoff have contributed to the number of low oxygen hypoxic areas known as dead zones, where most marine life cannot survive, resulting in the collapse of some ecosystems. Over million tons of plastic are produced each year.
Plastics can contribute to reduce our carbon footprint. They provide improved insulation, lighter packaging, are found in phones, computers, medical devices, etc. These countries adopt an integrated waste and resource management strategy to address each waste stream with the best options. However, waste and disposal remain an issue in most of the world.
The United Nations Environment Programme estimated in that every square mile of ocean contains 46, pieces of floating plastic. Synthetic plastics and composite materials are more important than traditional metals and steel, industries associated with manufacturing of them become the major contributors to the new sources of pollutants and types. Because of this, research and technological innovation has also been conducted in a similar pattern over time in developed countries first and then developing ones.
It is apparent that chemical analysis yields specific information on the individual chemicals, their forms, bioavailability, but eco toxicology combines the information of chemicals and organisms to make the connection between toxic effects and implications on humans Han et al.
From this, our capability in analysis has been advanced far better than toxicology and further enhancement on organism-based analysis of chemical exposure is still needed. Chemical analysis has an important role in our understanding of the environment because it can quantify the concentrations of specific contaminants at the time and locations of sampling. This serves as basic information on the extent of contamination, but this approach also has its own limitations due to the entities of the sampled, matrices involved and the analytical methods used.
Such data are only relevant to the specific compartments of the ecological niche under the specific conditions at the time of sampling and the methods used, no historical information could be recovered from the samples. Actually, environmental data that can yield any historical events are impossible using routine chemical analysis alone except for a few situations, e. As such, alternative approaches in understanding the environmental impact from pollution and toxic chemicals can be ecological based by using indicators that can stand the test of time to reflect the historical events of the past or pollution Han and Gu In general, ecological investigations have not been given the deserved importance and uniqueness as they should be mainly because the high variability and also the long duration of the study for collection of meaningful data to reach a more convincing conclusion Shen et al.
However, it is undeniable that ecological analysis coupling with chemical data can provide more meaningful insights to the environmental status of the ecosystems and the changes that have been taking place. In a similar but different approach, microbial community structure composition of selective biochemical process can be used as reliable environmental quality indicators, anammox bacteria as one has been proposed as selective species of this group are only detected in contaminated environments while others are only in pristine ecosystems Cao et al.
It is indisputable that many scientists in China have actively engaged in research on pollution sources, types of the pollutants, toxic effects of chemicals on target and non-target organisms at a wide range of response levels including molecular, enzymatic, and organismic levels, especially many studies carried out in laboratory under simulated and controlled conditions Wu et al. The information from such hypothetical studies must serve the needs for problem solving in the real world, which is community and ecosystem based.
Here an integration of studies focused on coastal and marine ecosystem and ecotoxicology has been collected from selective papers of talks presented at the International Symposium on Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology held on March 1—3, in Daya Bay, Guangdong, PR China to make these results in a permanent record form accessible to the scientific community worldwide.
- Change Password;
- The development of plastic ocean pollution;
- Plastic pollution of the world’s seas and oceans as a contemporary challenge in ocean governance.
- Algal Photosynthesis.
- Situating Fertility: Anthropology and Demographic Inquiry?
- An Island to Oneself.
- A Walk Along The Ganges!
It was our primary purposes initially in organizing this series of symposia to further gather scientific data from scientists to discuss their on-going research projects, foster active communication on their latest research results and effectively disseminate such information at each symposium so that future research projects could be formulated and carried out coherently and logically for a better, systematic and coherent understanding of the magnitude of environmental problems, basic mechanisms involved and possible mitigation strategies.
By doing so, research projects in the planning phase by graduate students and post-docs can benefit greatly from such information exchanges to advance the better understanding of the scientific research questions involved. At the same time, both legislatures and governing bodies of the government can use such information and to implement science-based policy with the scientific data available as a basis. It is very important that multi-disciplinary interactions are necessary and essential not only to better our understanding and effective planning of research projects in pollution control and ecotoxicology, but also to implement any remedial measures to deal with the environmental problems facing not only China but particularly the developing countries and emerging ones in the world in the near future Ford et al.
Marine pollution around Dakar reaches critical levels
Elucidation of the processes and mechanisms involved is the primary responsibility of scientists so that administrative and management plans can be formulated to deal with such problems most effectively. In this collection of 40 papers, topics cover from Toxic Cyanobacteria and Dinoflagellates to Toxicants and Risk. Mangrove and Pollution alone has more than 10 papers in particular to show the focus of this symposium specifically. At the same time, Microbial Ecology and Ecotoxicology is also presented here as a separate section with widely different research presented from freshwater cyanobacteria and coral associated bacteria to bacterial laccase-like genes in mangrove and microbial response to anthropogenic impacts and polyaromatic hydrocarbons.
Marine Coastal and Water Pollutions (Focus (ebook)
Others include Gene Markers and Responses to Pollutants as ecotoxicological focus also highlights the recent advances in these areas of research. Most importantly, many papers in this collection are not restricted to the these section topics and can be under more than one topic titles, such as those under Mangrove and Pollution. This collection of papers keeps up the tradition of this symposium series emphasizing on the ecological and microbial ecotoxicology with a much wider view on the ecosystem under stress.
It is clear that environmental contamination and cleaning up should be dealt with in case-by-case manner and different techniques can be utilized selectively based on the specific pollutant and conditions of the ecosystem to formulate the science-based approach.
click It is also clear that nano-materials and abiotic process also have their role to play in affecting the geochemical processes and solving the environmental problems Xu et al. Similarly, phytoremediation is a specific subject where scientific investigation should be focused on removal of metals and metalloid or organics from the polluted niches Yu and Gu ; Yu et al.
The problems we are facing are the anthropogenic sources of pollutants, high population and growth, and related activities Cao et al.
Environmental studies have been moving constantly from much wide education in curriculum in all countries to finely defined research in laboratories, but our society is still facing a much big challenge between development and protection and conservation. Though we do not know how fragile is our ecosystem, but we do know they are altered through our activities, especially in more recent time than in the past, reactive nitrogen is a very good example.
Because of our thirst for energy, petroleum is widely and increasing consumed as the major energy source, but pollution and oil spills are notable widely.
- Rio+20 Ocean.
- Many “flavors” of marine pollution!
- Frequently Asked Questions.
- Marvelous Possessions: The Wonder of the New World.
- Marine Coastal and Water Pollutions (Focus (ebook).