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It is caused by inflamed meibomian glands that make the oil in tears.

Encyclopedia of the Eye

Sometimes called pink eye, this is an inflammation of the blood vessels in the conjunctiva, the membrane that covers the sclera and inside of the eyelids. Conjunctivitis may be caused by bacteria or viruses, making it very contagious. Diabetic retinopathy. A disorder of the retina resulting from damage to the eye blood vessels and found in some people who have diabetes. Dry eye. This happens when there is not enough moisture in the eye, causing it to feel dry, hot, sandy, and gritty.

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These appear as spots, dots, or lines and affect or interrupt vision. Floaters are usually caused by bits of debris in the vitreous humor. Hyperopia also called farsightedness. It is funded through processing fees, private donations, grants, and gifts.

Eye - Biology Encyclopedia - cells, body, human, system, different, blood, structure, membrane

In its forty-seven-year history, the Eye Bank has provided nearly 15, corneas for transplants and approximately 12, eyes for teaching and research. It has also presented 5, educational community programs. In Dr. One very unusual feature of stomatopod neuroarchitecture is that the midband ommatidia project to specialized, expanded regions of the first three neuropils, called accessory lobes, within which the identity of the individual midband rows is maintained through the flow of retinal information Kleinlogel et al. Currently, the connections that permit exchange of information between the various midband rows, or between the midband and the hemispheres, and even between the dorsal and ventral hemisphere are not obvious.

While further anatomical studies may clarify this, dye labeling of specific pathways and electrophysiological recordings from known neurons will be necessary to understand how the complex, spatially redundant information from the three retinal regions is brought together for higher analysis. Even with the lack of direct physiological evidence, the general organization of retinal projections suggests an overall plan of function Marshall et al.

Axons of photoreceptors of single ommatidia project to individual cartridges in the lamina. Axons of main rhabdom photoreceptors R1—R7 terminate here, while R8 axons continue through the cartridge to the medulla before terminating. Cartridges of the first four midband rows, those thought to foster color perception, are circular in shape, while all others are rectangular. As is not uncommon in crustaceans, axons of retinular cells R1, 4, and 5 terminate within a distal plexiform layer in the lamina, while those of R2, 3, 6, and 7 terminate slightly deeper in the proximal plexiform layer Kleinlogel et al.

In the hemispheres and the two ventral midband rows, these cell groups correspond to those forming microvilli in successive, orthogonal layers of the rhabdom, suggesting that the wiring fosters polarization analysis most likely via opponency. Similarly, the same cell identities segregate into the proximal and distal tiers of rhabdoms of the four chromatic rows of the midband.

These have spectrally distinct sensitivities, which indicates that processing of chromatic and polarizational information is handled by similar neuronal mechanisms. The R8 axons follow a different pathway. In the hemispheres and in the dorsal four rows of the midband, they send out lateral neurites into the laminar cartridges. This suggests that they interact in some way with inputs from R1—7 cells before continuing to their final terminations in the medulla.

R8 axons of the two ventral rows i. These axons lead from the only polarization-sensitive UV cells in the retina, so bypassing the lamina could be a way to preserve polarization integrity at middle wavelengths in those cartridges segregating UV linear polarization sensitivity from middle-wavelength linear or circular polarization analysis. Presumably, their terminations in the medulla enable analysis of UV polarized light, but the mechanisms involved are unknown.

In recent decades, many surprising features of the visual systems of stomatopod crustaceans have emerged. As noted at the outset, stomatopod vision is immensely complex, with many photoreceptor classes based on an extraordinary opsin diversity, unusual ocular anatomy, exceptional polarization vision in both linear and circular polarization, distinctive eye movements, and a very complex visual neuroanatomy.

Given the pugnacious nature of stomatopods, it seems likely that these specializations evolved in parallel with the ability to identify and strike predators, prey, or competitors accurately and nearly instantaneously, which requires an advanced sense of space, shape, and coloration. The specializations vary among species and among habitats. Few of these features are well understood, and no doubt other oddities in stomatopod vision are yet to be revealed. While being in many ways like other large crustaceans, these fascinating animals nevertheless are outstanding exemplars of the creative powers of evolution.

Ahyong, S. The phylogeny of the stomatopod Crustacea. Australian Journal of Zoology , 48 , — Find this resource:. Bok, M.

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Diversity, ecology, and evolution of ultraviolet filters in stomatopod crustaceans. Journal of Experimental Biology , , — Biological sunscreens tune polychromatic ultraviolet vision in mantis shrimp. Current Biology , 24 , — Caldwell, R. Ecology and evolution of agonistic behavior in stomatopods. Naturwissenschaften , 62 , — Scientific American , 1 , 80— Cheroske, A. Evolutionary variation in the expression of phenotypically plastic color vision in Caribbean mantis shrimps, genus Neogonodactylus. Marine Biology , , — Variation in stomatopod Gonodactylus smithii color signal design associated with organismal condition and depth.

Brain, Behavior and Evolution , 66 , 99— Chiao, C. Eye design and color signaling in a stomatopod crustacean, Gonodactylus smithii.

Fixed and Exchangeable Ocular Lenses

Brain, Behavior and Evolution , 56 , — Chiou, T. Circular polarisation vision in a stomatopod crustacean. Current Biology , 18 , — Changes in light reflecting properties of signaling appendages alter mate choice behaviour in a stomatopod crustacean, Haptosquilla trispinosa. Marine and Freshwater Physiology and Behaviour , 44 , 1— Cronin, T. The visual pigment of a stomatopod crustacean, Squilla empusa. Journal of Comparative Physiology , , — Optical design and evolutionary adaptation in crustacean compound eyes.

Previous versions of this entry

Journal of Crustacean Biology , 6 , 1— Filtering and polychromatic vision in mantis shrimps: Themes in visible and ultraviolet vision. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B , , Tuning of visual function in three mantis shrimp species that inhabit a range of depths. I: Visual pigments. Journal of Comparative Physiology A , , — II: Filter pigments.

A deeper shade of red: colour vision tuned to habitat in a mantis shrimp. Nature , , — Visual ecology. Multiple spectral classes of photoreceptors in the retinas of gonodactyloid stomatopod crustaceans. A retina with at least ten spectral types of photoreceptors in a stomatopod crustacean. The unique visual world of mantis shrimps.

Prete Ed. Patterns and properties of polarized light in air and water. Photoreceptor spectral diversity in the retinas of squilloid and lysiosquilloid stomatopod crustaceans. The retinas of mantis shrimps from low-light environments Crustacea; Stomatopoda; Gonodactylidae. The intrarhabdomal filters in the retinas of mantis shrimps. Vision Research , 34 , — Visual pigment diversity in two genera of mantis shrimps implies rapid evolution. Spectral tuning and the visual ecology of mantis shrimps. Specialization of retinal function in the compound eyes of mantis shrimps.

Optokinesis in gonodactyloid mantis shrimps Crustacea; Stomatopoda; Gonodactylidae. Vision in mantis shrimps. American Scientist , 82 , — Ultraviolet photoreception in mantis shrimp. Visual tracking of rapidly moving targets by stomatopod crustaceans. The molecular genetics and evolution of colour and polarization vision in stomatopod crustaceans. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics , 30 , — The linearly polarized light field in clear, tropical marine waters: spatial and temporal variation of light intensity, degree of polarization, and e -vector angle.

Polarization vision and its role in biological signaling. Integrative and Comparative Biology , 43 , — Regional specialization for control of ocular movements in the compound eyes of a stomatopod crustacean.

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Daly, I. Rolling their eyes: dynamic polarization vision in mantis shrimps. Nature Communications , 7 , Exner, S. Die physiologie der facettirten augen von krebsen und insecten. Leipzig Wien: Deuticke. Gagnon, Y. Circularly polarized light as a communication signal in mantis shrimp. Current Biology , 25 , — Goldsmith, T. The retinoids of seven species of mantis shrimp.