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To slightly Share the analysis between Q and K, you must see how to raise it up. If more view aspects of homogeneous catalysis a series of advances volume requires adsorbed, which folding will the scan return? This process then continues, thereby forming a linear polymer, poly ethene or poly propene. The polymer is precipitated when the catalyst is destroyed on addition of water. Because it is linear, the polymer molecules are able to pack together closely, giving the polymer a higher melting point and density than poly ethene produced by radical initiation. Figure 14 Illustrating the role of a Ziegler-Natta catalyst.

Not only do Ziegler-Natta catalysts allow for linear polymers to be produced but they can also give stereochemical control. Propene, for example could polymerize, even if linear, in three ways, to produce either atactic, isotactic or syndiotactic poly propene. However, this catalyst only allows the propene to be inserted in one way and isotactic polypropene is produced.

Even greater control of the polymerization is obtained using a new class of catalysts, the metallocenes. Many polymers are produced using radical initiators, which act as catalysts Table 4. For example the polymerization of chloroethene is started by warming it with a minute trace of a peroxide R-O-O-R :. Figure 15 A mechanism for the free radical polymerization of chloroethene to poly chloroethene. In the case of ethene, by using the free radical process, the resulting polymer has a lower density and a lower softening point than the poly ethene produced using a Ziegler-Natta catalyst or a metallic oxide.

The low density poly ethene , LDPE, has side chains because the radicals react not only with molecules of ethene, by addition, but also with polymer molecules, by a process known as hydrogen abstraction. The polymer radical can also abstract a hydrogen atom from its own chain:. Both of these reactions lead to side chains so that the molecules of the polymer cannot pack together in a regular way. The polymer thus has a lower melting point and lower density. Table 4 Examples of polymers produced using free radical polymerization. The search for catalysts will continue to be one of the highest priorities for the chemical industry as it seeks to run the processes at as low a temperature and as near atmospheric pressure as possible, commensurate with a reasonable rate of reaction.

The gains from improving catalysts are both financial and environmental, leading to lower fuel costs, for example the manufacture of methanol and the reduction of harmful waste gases, for example the manufacture of ethanoic acid. Similarly, benzene and propene are converted into cumene in the manufacture of phenol, using a zeolite catalyst in place of aluminium chloride. This means lower temperatures and pressures are used and the effluent produced is much cleaner. Further, catalysts are sought which will favour one specific reaction over another, thus again making the process much more economic.

There are benefits if a catalyst can be used rather than another chemical that takes part stoichiometrically in the reaction and cannot be recovered and reused. For example, aluminium chloride was used for many years to effect the reaction between benzene and a long chain alkene in the production of alkylbenzene sulfonates , an active surfactant in many detergents. The aluminium chloride could not be recycled and became waste as aluminium hydroxide and oxide. Now a solid zeolite catalyst with acid groups is used and can be reused time and time again with no waste products.

Another similar example is in the manufacture of one of the most important polymers used to make fabrics, polyamide 6 sometimes known as nylon 6. In this process, cyclohexanone is converted into caprolactam via the oxime produced by the reaction of the ketone with hydroxylamine hydrogensulfate. The oxime is isomerised by sulfuric acid to caprolactam, and ammonium sulphate is produced as a by-product. However, again a zeolite catalyst, with acidic sites, is now being used to effect the rearrangement.

The zeolite is regenerated and saves the use and subsequent waste of sulfuric acid. We invite you to write to us if you have any specific comments about this site, for example errors that you have found, suggestions for new topics or for adding to the existing units, suggestions for links to other sites and additions or alternatives to our examples.

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Please send these comments to: eci essentialchemicalindustry. Save Save. The chemical industry. Catalysis in industry Chemical reactors Cracking and related refinery processes Distillation Extracting crude oil and natural gas Green chemistry Recycling in the chemical industry. Polymers: an overview Degradable plastics Methanal plastics Formaldehyde plastics Polyamides Polycarbonates Poly chloroethene Polyvinyl chloride Polyesters Poly ethene Polyethylene Poly methyl 2-methylpropenoate Polymethyl methacrylate Poly phenylethene Polystyrene Poly propene Polypropylene Poly propenoic acid Polyacrylic acid Poly propenonitrile Polyacrylonitrile Poly tetrafluoroethene Polytetrafluoroethylene Polyurethanes Silicones.

Heterogeneous catalysis The most common examples of heterogeneous catalysis in industry involve the reactions of gases being passed over the surface of a solid, often a metal, a metal oxide or a zeolite Table 1. The exhaust gases contain carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons that react with the excess oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water vapour, the reaction being catalysed principally by the palladium: The exhaust gases also contain nitrogen II oxide nitric oxide, NO , and this is removed by reactions catalysed principally by the rhodium: The accepted mechanism for the oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide involves the chemisorption of both carbon monoxide molecules and oxygen molecules on the surface of the metals.

A testimony to the importance of catalysis today is the award of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in to Gerhard Ertl for his work in elucidating, amongst other processes, the mechanism for the synthesis of ammonia the Haber Process : Ertl obtained crucial evidence on how iron catalyses the dissociation of the nitrogen molecules and hydrogen molecules leading to the formation of ammonia Figure 2 : Figure 2 A mechanism for the catalytic synthesis of ammonia.

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General requirements for a heterogeneous catalyst To be successful the catalyst must allow the reaction to proceed at a suitable rate under conditions that are economically desirable, at as low a temperature and pressure as possible. In Figure 4, the platinum-rhodium alloy used in the manufacture of nitric acid is in the form of very fine wire that has been woven to construct a gauze. By kind permission of Johnson Matthey. In Figure 5, vanadium V oxide used in the manufacture of sulfuric acid has been produced in a 'daisy' shape.

Figure 6 A platinum-rhodium gauze is used as a catalyst in the reaction between ammonia and methane to produce hydrogen cyanide, an intermediate in the production of methyl 2-methylpropenoate. The gauze operates at K and is thus glowing. The photograph was taken though a sight glass located on the reactor. Aluminium oxide, silicon dioxide, aluminosilicates and zeolites One of the most important reactions in which aluminium oxide , Al 2 O 3 , often referred to as alumina takes part in an industrial reaction is in platforming , in which naphtha is reformed over aluminina impregnated with platinum or rhenium.

For example, the manufacture of ethanol is achieved by the hydration of ethene using silica, coated with phosphoric acid: The mechanism involves the formation of a carbocation Figure 7 : Figure 7 A mechanism for the hydration of ethene to ethanol. Figure 8 The structure of a zeolite example figure A zeolite which is commonly used in many catalytic reactions is ZSM-5 which is prepared from sodium aluminate a solution of aluminium oxide in aqueous sodium hydroxide and a colloidal solution of silica, sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid and tetrapropylammonium bromide. Figure 9 A zeolite acting an a molecular sieve and a catalyst during the formation of 1,4-dimethylbenzene from methylbenzene.

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  • Bifunctional catalysts Bifunctional catalysts are able, as the name implies, to catalyse the conversion of one compound to another, using two substances on the surface. In this example butane is dehydrogenated to butene. For example, in the Contact Process used to manufacture sulfuric acid, the catalyst for the oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide is vanadium V oxide on the surface of silica: Potassium sulfate is added as a promoter.